Once named Low street, Castlegate leads from the centre of Malton down to the river, the road continuing over the County Bridge and into Norton. In Victorian times the breweries were situated in Castlegate along with a variety of tradesmen and shops.
Memories of Castlegate
What follows has been taken from Thomas Baker's 'Memories of Malton and Some of its Inhabitants in the 'Sixties and Onwards'. The date of writing is assumed to be the 1920s - 'sixties' refers to the 1860s!
Messrs. Snow & Sons have occupied their premises since 1844, and are well-known up-to-date drapers and fashion specialists. Mr. Thomas Taylor, grocer, opened the spirit vaults next door to Snows' Castlegate premises, and it was formerly known as 'Tommy Taylor's dram Shop.' The shop which is now known as Snows' carpet shop was occupied by Mr. William Johnstone, a Scotch draper, and he was followed by Messrs. Jackson, and then by Messrs. Wade & Co., all as drapers.
Mr. Wright, a shoe and clog maker, was the tenant of the shop now occupied by Mr. Magson, electrician, and Mr. Johnson, grocer, occupied the premises at present tenanted by Mrs. Carr, Mr. B. Robson, and Mason's Cafe - the latter as a boot and shoe shop. The open space immediately in front of these premises was the fish market, paved with cobble stones, and in the centre was a public pump. Where Mr. C.W. Robson's Garage is now situated was an ironmongery business, carried on by Messrs. Moon and Robson; and the adjoining premises were in the same family as now - the old-established business of Messrs. T. Taylor & Co. The shop next door, now tenanted by Mr. Ashworth, butcher, was then a private house occupied by Mr. William Walker, a member of the firm of brewers and millers who owned The Old Brewery at the opposite side of the road. Mr. Walker eventually removed to the residence occupied by the late Mr. George Cattle, in Newbiggin, and then on to the Browse. Mr. T. Taylor succeeded Mr. Walker in residence at Castlegate House, which then had palisadings along the front as a protection to a deep area into the basement. Mr. Walker Wilson, painter, followed; and Mr. Dean and Mr. Holmes, butchers, succeeded. The lane by the side of the house led down to one of the many corn and coal wharves in this neighbourhood. The river Derwent from near the Brow's quarry to King's Mills near the gas works presented quite a busy appearance at times, for most of the seed, copal, corn, flour, &c., was received and despatched form these wharves. A walk along the river side between these two points would disclose between 15 and 20 vessels, lying at the various yards either loading or discharging merchandise. All the vessels were towed by horses along the towing path, and on reaching Malton, opposite to then Metcalfe's Flour Mill, the horses had to cross the river on to the island by means of a foot bridge, and emerge opposite to the house on the County Bridge. The supports of that bridge can still be seen at low water.
In the two houses adjacent to the lane above-mentioned lived, in the first one Mr. Atkinson, who had a bakehouse there; and in the second two brothers of the name of Andrews, who were chain makers, and had their works up the Ship Inn yard just opposite. The houses have recently been demolished and a commodious house and shop erected and the tenant is Miss Cour. Mr. Joseph Kipling lived next door, and his wife carried on a dressmaking business; whilst the adjoining property was composed of three or four small dwelling houses, which were eventually demolished in order to make room for Mr. Beswick's Garage. Down the lane nearby were some stables occupied by Mr. Dick Barker, a well known horse dealer, and during Psalmsun week there was a lot of horse dealing carried on, and Castlegate and Wheelgate was a veritable horse fair, the horses being brought out of various stables in the neighbourhood to show their paces in the street, and much ginger was required and used at these times. On the opposite side of the lane where Messrs. Russells and Wrangham's offices now stand was a butcher's shop, kept by a Mr. Fox; and then a few cottages were approached through a passage immediately adjoining; through this passage lived two very familiar characters in Matty and Martha Stainton. Matty was a well known snuff taker, and quite a lot of people used to stop him and ask for a pinch, and consequently a short chat. The topic of conversation was generally about Martha; and after dispersing, Matty very often discovered a few coppers or a bit of silver in his snuff box. Martha was very deaf, and always wore a large crinoline, resembling a bell tent, and an appropriate costume to match. Matty was by 'profession' an out-porter, and was generally to be fund around the railway station when not engaged by some commercial traveller. At any rate, you seldom saw Matty without his barrow. A small sweet shop adjoined the passage; and then a larger house at the top of the yard leading down to Messrs. Russell's mill and brewery was occupied by Mr. Alfred Russell, a member of the firm.
Mr. Alfred was of a humorous turn of mind, fond of playing a practical joke on particular friends, and took a great delight in old Sol. Williamson, who was Malton's best known character. He would take Sol down the yard and decorate him with paper garlands of various colours, put a belt round him and stick a tin sword through it and then send him out in the street. Sol always seemed delighted to parade the street in this gala attire, though he occasionally got ragged by people telling him he was born without a shirt. This remark annoyed him very much, and often caused him to use lurid language. It used to be the custom of workmen who usually spent part of their dinner hour at Butcher Corner, to look out for Sol's coming, and when they saw him approaching, word went round, and when Sol was passing, someone would remark loudly enough for Sol to hear, 'They say he was born without a shirt.' Sol 'bit' at once, and replied vividly, 'Thoos a leear, Ah wasn’t,' and then until one o'clock thee was great fun for all but Sol. After the workmen had finished with him, owing to one o'clock, school children continued to tease him until they had to leave him on account of school time. I often used to wonder why he went on arguing with those who tormented him, and why he did not avoid Butcher Corner during dinner hour.
The butcher's shop, yard, and sweet shop were demolished, and the commodious offices of Messrs. Russells and Wrangham, Ltd., were built, thus considerably improving the aspect of this part of Castlegate.
The shop now occupied by Mr. Robinson as a pawn-shop was, curiously enough, a pawnshop kept by a Mr. Kitson, who committed suicide there. Following Mr. Kitson, was Mr. C. Baker, butcher. Mr. John Collier was established as a printer and bookseller next door, and following him were three or four other tenants, the present occupier being Mrs. G. Wilson. Mr. Sollitt, a shoemaker lived next door; and Messrs. Russells had a retail flour shop managed bby Mr. Carr, and then by Mr. John Normanton - two faithful and much appreciated servants. Down the yard leading to the flour mill, Mr. John Brignall had a saddler's business; and living as a neighbour was Mr. Joshua Hunter, another long-standing and faithful servant of the Russells.
The Griffin Brewery was situate on the adjoining site, and extended down to the river Derwent, and at one time employed quite a number of hands, Mr. Walter Cayley Alexander occupying the private house attached to the brewery. When Mr. Alexander left, Mr. W.R. Spaven, who was bookkeeper and traveller for the firm, was installed in the house, and remained there until the firm closed down, and the contents of the brewery sold by auction. Structural alterations were eventually effected, and Mr. Thomas Botterill, auctioneer, became tenant and commenced a furniture business. He was followed by the Malton and Norton Co-operative Society Ltd., who opened out the premises, and continued there until taking over the premises in Wheelgate, retaining the Castlegate property as a stores, and the shop as a butchering department.
Mrs. Gray occupied the adjoining shop. Her business was that of altering shapes of straw hats, &c., and the window was usually full of straw hats and bonnets of various shapes. Adjoining the lane, which was called Hawkswell Lane, were two or three cottages. These were pulled down, and the confectionery business of Mr. Foster established. Next door was a tinner's shop, kept by Mr. Rowse, and later by Mr. Fish, saddler. Mrs. Tom Lister, wife of Malton's one-time only letter carrier, still lives in the house where Mr. Lister's parents lived, and the shop next door was for some time occupied by Mr. J. H. Delday, who was a Scotch draper, and now resides at Scarborough. The Spread Eagle Inn is still where it was, and is occupied by a daughter of the former landlord - Bill Kingston. Mr. Henry Brown, builder and contractor, was a neighbour, and adjoining him was the residence of Mr. William Metcalfe, one of the partners of W. Metcalfe and Sons, millers, and he was succeeded by Mr. Wm. Roberts, followed by Dr. de Mirimonde. Dr. Young, who, I believe, was the first Medical Officer of Health for Malton, resided next door; and it was here that the Rev. Dinsdale Young spent most of his boyhood days.
Ruston's tan yard was situated on the adjacent premises, and it was from here that the huge mound of bark knots, which stood in the field on welham Road, was maintained. On the closing down of the tannery, the mound gradually diminished, and Mr. Robson eventually built a garage on the ground where it stood. When the tan yard closed, Mr. William Wrangham commenced the Crystal Brewery on the premises, and in course of time it was merged into Russells and Wrangham Ltd. Mr Walter Baker occupies part of the premises vacated as a garage. Mr. Walker had a bakery next to the brewery, and those premises have been rebuilt, and a confectionery business is now carried on by Mr. Oldfield. Mr. James Metcalfe, another member of the firm of W. Metcalfe and Sons, lived on the mill premises, in the house at the top of the yard. Malton was particularly well known for its flour, especially in York. There were four flour mills in Malton at that time (in the ‘sixties), and the flour was conveyed to York by wagons with four horses attached, leaving Malton twice a week, about 10 or 11 o'clock at night, and returning the day following. Now, I regret to say, there is only one flour mill left - Messrs. Russells and Wranghams Ltd. Next to Metcalfes' mill were two or three houses, one of which was occupied by Dr. Deeley when he commenced practice on his own behalf; and next door to him was a shoeing forge occupied by Mr. Sunley, and Dickey Ford had a joiner's shop behind. These premises were later occupied by Mr. Anthony Fish as a millwright, and now they are a wholesale sweet establishment. Further down the yard was Messrs. Johnson and Taylor's biscuit works. There was a serious fire here, which burnt the works out, and they were never re-started.
The Crown and Anchor Inn, at the opposite side of the road, was then occupied by Mr. Frear Storr, and many a time I have seen water flowing out of the house during times of flood, and floods were more frequent in those days than they are now. I have seen the lower part of Castlegate quite impassable for people on foot, and the flood water extended from where Dr. Young lived to the Griffin Hotel, in Norton, the crown of the county bridge being the only visible portion of the roadway. Railway traffic from Rillington to Barton Hill station was entirely cut off, and the mails, &c., had to be brought through by road.
The Gas Co's. offices and works still occupy the same site as then, though the works have been enlarged. Mr. Henry Tobey was the first manager that I remember, and he had a long connection with the company, retiring in 1920; he being followed by Mr. Tomas Law. The company have been very fortunate in their choice of managers, all have been thoroughly practical men.
The house at present occupied by Mr. L.T. Oldfield, the Temperance hotel, was tenanted by Mr. Tom Hawley, and later by Mr. T. Snarry, veterinary surgeon. The house and garden next door was the residence of Mr. Matthew Edwards, first by the father and then the son; they being succeeded by the late Mr. C.W. Mason. Mr James Hopperton, churn maker, lived at the bottom of church Hill after removal from Wheelgate, and on the opposite side Mr. William Spaven. The premises at present occupied by Miss Ramsden was a public house, and was called the White Hart, and the landlord was Mr. Frank Marshall, who also carried on business of fishmonger. The neighbouring house was occupied by Mr. Robert Boulton, who founded the well-known auctioneering firm of Messrs. Boulton and Cooper. Mr. Boulton instituted at first a fortnightly and later a weekly auction mart for the sale of cattle, &c. He eventually took into partnership Mr. Constable, who was a schoolmaster. Later, on Mr Constable’s retirement, Mr. William Cooper, who was a clerk in the office, was taken into partnership, and by ability and determination greatly assisted in developing the business.
On Mr. Boulton's death, Mr. Cooper continued to carry on and, without doubt, greatly owing to the untiring and faithful services of Messrs. Kirk and Medd, the firm of Boulton and Cooper became one of the most noted and important in the North of England. The business is now carried on by his son Major Percy Cooper. Not ony was Mr. Boulton a good and popular auctioneer, but he was also a throrough sportsman. It was mainly through his determination to have the best, and to his generosity, that the Malton Cricket Club was so famous in the 60's, 70's and 80's. He was instrumental in obtaining the membership and consequently the paying services of such men as George Freeman, Roger Iddison, E. B. Rawlinson, H. Dewse, Martin Riley, Tom Leavesley, and a host of other first-rate players. The fixture card was always a good one, and included such teams as Harrow Wanderers, Leeds Clarence, Hull, Yeadon, Scarborough, Darlington, &c., all of which were two-day fixtures. He was also the principal backer of Alfred Brown, who played John Hicks (of York) for a stake of £50 a side in 1873, when some of the best cricket it has been my lot to see was played on the Malton Cricket Ground, which was then near the Malton Station. Brown won by an innings and 19 runs. Mr. Boulton was also deeply interested in greyhound coursing, and it was mainly owing to him that the Malton meeting was so successful. He acted as judge at the meetings, and W.E. Bosomworth was the slipper.
It was often through his influence that I had many a good day's cricket in these matches during my apprenticeship, for he would approach Mr. Smithson (my employer) and ask for my services to play with the Malton club, and if it was a two day's match he always paid my expenses. I may state here that apprentices in those days had no annual holidays as now, and not much pay either. It was also through his good offices that I was enabled to accept an invitation form the Rebv. A. E. B. Pitman, who was then Vicar of Old Malton, to join a team of cricketers which he had been asked to take to Wentworth house to play a team of the then Earl Fitzwiliam's; and what a grand outing it was - the best of many good ones. On arrival, we were received by the Earl and shown to our tent and supplied with refreshments, and then changed into flannels, commencing play directly afterwards. We played up to 6.30, and then adjourned to the house where we were shown to our separate rooms to dress for dinner. Alfred Brown and myself had adjoining rooms and when ready to go downstairs we were bewildered by the many landings and turnings, and whilst wandering about, one of the Earl's guests came to our rescue and piloted us down and suggested that we should have a look round the gardens until dinner was ready. He showed us which door to enter when we heard the dinner bell, and thus we were relieved of a difficulty. We were not in the gardens long before others joined us and all answered he dinner bell with some alacrity. After spending about an hour and a half over dinner and the walnuts and wine, an adjournment was made to the marble concert hall, where a concert party from Sheffield entertained us; after the concert a ball, and then to bed.
In the morning we were shown the cellars - a miniature brewery - and then to the cricket pitch, which was in front of the house. During play the pack of foxhounds were brought on to the field and much admired.
Referring to our not being able to find our way downstairs it may be mentioned that Wentworth House is one of the largest mansions in the Kingdom, and has the reputation of possessing more windows than any private residence in the land. There is a story of a former owner going one day to explore the servants' quarters of the house and entirely losing his way. He was piloted back to more familiar regions by a servant whom he had never seen before and who had never seen him.
I always look back with a certain amount of pride in the knowledge that I have slept in one of the largest mansions in England and been a guest of one of the Earls of Fitzwilliam.
Adjoining the house where Mr. Boulton lived were two or three smaller houses, and then came the residence of another auctioneer and public man - Mr. Thomas Botterill. He was a member of the Malton Urban District Council, or rather Local Board of Health at that time, and was not a sleeping member either, but was always up and doing, and was never afraid of expressing his views. He created some lively scenes during the time he was a member. A few doors farther up the street was the Ship Inn, landlord, Mr. Robinson. It always seemed strange to me why there was a need for a 'Ship' Inn, but probably it was given that name through the fact that there were so many wharves in the neighbourhood, and that the vessel men when coming 'ashore' needed some liquid refreshment. The inn was not a palatial one, and the room where the beer was served was flagged and sanded, and had the usual metal spittoons fillied with sawdust or sand judiciously spread over the floor. Up the passage near by were several cottages, as well as the chain works of the Andrew Brothers. Messrs. John Walker & Co., brewers and millers, occupied a large area adjoining. First there was the coopery, where barrels were made and repaired, then the retail flour shop, and immediately adjoining were the offices. Messrs. Walker & Co. were succeeded by Messrs. Charles Rose & Co., and now the firm is styled Chas. Rose & Co., Limited. The maltkiln adjoining was erected on a site occupied by some half dozen cottages, one of which was occupied by a well known man in those days, of the name of Jeremiah Swales, a pot hawker, who later removed to Norton. The lane near the maltkin was formerly known as Sweep Lane, but now St. Leonard's Lane, and up this lane resided Mr. Robert Coulson, who acted as bellman for many years, and at his death his mantle fell on his son-in-law, Mr. Barnaby Knaggs, who carried out the duties until his demise. Mr. Jim Newton followed Mr. Knaggs, and on his death, Mr. Bullous was appointed the official bellman.
Mr. Moorhouse, saddler, occupied the house and shop now tenanted by Miss Eddon, painter, and the shop adjoining is still in the occupation of Mr. Cryer, saddler, son succeeding the father.
Mr. John Walker lived next door, and was a well-known herbalist; he also had galvanic batteries and vapour baths, which were much patronised by those suffering from rheumatism, &c. It was here that Tom Doughty lodged, and being of mechanical turn of mind, thought he would construct a tricycle made mostly of gas piping. This he succeeded in doing to his own satisfaction and built it in the yard behind the house. There being no egress from the back, it had to be brought out of the front door through a passage from the yard. To Tom's dismay he found it too wide to get it through the passage and front door. Consequently he had to dismantle part of it, and bring it out piecemeal and reconstruct in other premises. However it turned out all right and was ridden by him for some time, and created no little interest.
Mr. 'Ted' Hubbard succeeded Mr. Walker and had his dye-works behind the house. Ted was a man who was fond of practical joking, and was once himself caught in the act. One night (after 11 o'clock) he and one or to others were crossing the Market Place and espied a water-butt on wheels behind one of the shows which were then in the town. In a spirit of mischief they ran this water-butt down Saville Street into Railway Street where they left it, and then retired to their respective homes, and to bed. They had, however, been observed, and eventually a police constable knocked at the house door. Ted opened his bedroom window and enquired who was there, and the policeman politely informed him that if he did not take the water-butt back to the place from where he had removed it, there would be trouble. In spite of protests by Ted the constable was adamant, and told him the only alternative was to report him. Ted, in order to avoid further trouble, decided to obey, and tugged the blessed thing back to its home. He declared it was much harder work to take it back than it was to bring it down.
I remember him going to Castle Howard one Saturday afternoon to a temperance demonstration being held there. He was one of the audience, and when one of the speakers denounced beer drinking and the perils associated with it, Ted interjected some dissenting remarks, and the speaker invited him on to the platform. Acceding to the request, he mounted the platform, and pointing to himself as a specimen of one who took a glass of beer (he was a healthy looking and well-built man), said it had done him no harm, and finished up an oration with the remark that although he was going to 'dye' on Monday he was in the meantime going to have a glass of beer. Those who did not know he was a dyer by trade were astounded by his apparent sacrilege. Ted duly carried out his dyeing on Monday morning. He was a good fellow, and capital company, was most particular in his personal appearance, and could sing a good song. His favourite song was 'Landlord fill the flowing bowl.' He lived to be over 80.
Messrs. Horsley Brothers, chemists, were tenants of the property now in possession of Messrs. Laverack & Sons.
Castlegate in the 18th Century
I have been favoured by Mr. George Brown with a copy of a wood engraving, which, I understand, was used some time ago by Messrs. Thomas Taylor and Son, grocers, on one of their paper bags. Mr. Brown and others have also given me various interesting particulars relating to the buildings shown in this woodcut. The old house to the left of the picture was the "Rockingham Arms," whose landlord in the forties of last century was George Peterkin. This public-house occupied the whole of the space between the site of the old Post Office and Mr. Baker's butcher's shop. The quaint roof will be noticed, the horse block (one of the best examples in the town) and the wood post on the edge of the pavement. I cannot detect any sign of lighting, and believe I am right in saying that gas was only introduced into Malton streets in 1832, when the Gasworks were erected by Mr. John Malcolm. The Rockingham Arms was taken down about 1862. Going over to the other side of Old Maltongate (then somewhat steeper than now), the old buildings shown in the woodcut have been greatly altered, especially the corner shop now occupied by Mr. Laverack. There is a marked difference between the present excellent shop windows and entrance and the insignificant front and doorway shown in the picture. At the time I have been speaking of the shop was occupied by Messrs. Horsley, chemists and druggists. The picture hardly conveys the fact that the streets were all cobbled with cobblestones from the sea. About sixty years ago old Clarkson Williamson and his son paved the town. Next to this house dwelt Coultas Skelton, one of the Malton constables serving under "Old Tom Wilson." I believe that at that time there were two assistant constables, and the lock-up (or "Black Hole" as it was called) was situated in Finkle-st., just above Mr. Fuller's shop. It was no uncommon thing then to see naughty boys congregating before the house in order to ? the prisoners who were chiefly "drunks." I should very much like to know what the salary of these constables was, and what time they were expected to give from their own businesses. The Norton lock-up was in the place known as the "Round House." On the other side of the house just mentioned, three doors from the Old Maltongate opening, there was half-a-century ago a saddler named Moorhouse. Coming on the other side of Castlegate, the Dunlops lived in what I may almost call our Malton sky-scraper, now occupied by Mr. Walker Wilson. In those times the prospect from this house was difficult from to-day, for, where the brewery buildings now meet the eye, the roadway was bordered with old thatched cottage property. In the woodcut the original shop of Messrs. T. Taylor and Son is shown, and readers will agree that it has a very different appearance from the present one. The site of Mr. Robson's shop, and probably the building also, is visible, previously occupied by Mr. James Moon, ironmonger; none of my informants can tell me anything about the little shop in between. Some other interesting places are hidden by the corner (grocer's) shop. For instance, Carpenter's-yard came next to Messrs. Robson's - so called because at the bottom of the yard there was a dry dock about the width and twice the length of a vessel where carpenters worked on the keels. It was very busy down there in the early part of the last century. The hull and Malton Sloop Company had its offices where Dr. Deeley lived for many years, in Yorkersgate. Mr A.H. Taylor's present place of business (then inhabited by Mr. Johnson) was almost entirely burnt down about this time. I believe that there are still in Malton some men, now growing old, who well remember the way in which bits of indiarubber over shoes were snatched from the fire and chewed by themselves in and out of school time! The face of the building was largely spared and was incorporated in the present premises. Large additions were also made thereto. Opposite these there was then still visible the bottom stone of one of Malton's two market crosses, and a pump stood near it. the latter was very handy for the fish market, in which the chief figures were Old Jennie Robson and Jack Jackson. A deep well still exists under the paved surface in front of 12. Castlegate. Recently, it was discovered to be unsafe, and was then protected by a large flat stone. Next to what is now the Colonial Meat Supply shop came Chapel Lane-end opposite which, among others, dwelt Mr. Barnes, solicitor. The two Misses Jagger kept a wholesale spirit shop round the corner in Castlegate. They were sisters of the late Mr. Charles Jagger, solicitor. In the corner shop, which many of us will always remember as Mr. Jackson's, Mr. Joseph Moon, the hatter, was then located, the entrance being up several steps. Then (coming nearer to Butcher Corner, and next to the Misses Jagger) there was Mr. T.T. Smith's father, at that time a grocer. The corner grocer's shop shown in the woodcut was occupied by Mr. J. Watson, as the engraving shows. Succeeding this gentleman, the premises were occupied as the North Riding Bank, which "came to grief" early in 1826. Then the late Mr. Wm. Snow began his drapery business, and was in due time followed by his son. Next to the grocer's shop was a small butcher's shop (shown in the engraving), and occupied for some time by the late Mr. John Ineson, a well-known tradesman of his day. Opposite Mr. Snow's present Yorkersgate shop was an old-fashioned millinery establishment (now in the occupation of Mrs. Manning), kept by an equally old-fashioned lady. In 1854 a Mr. Barnby followed (butcher), his successor being Mr. George Baker. Then the place was bought by Chas. Hartley and Mr. Geo. Bartliff. In this days tradesmen were often guilty of blocking the footway with heavy goods. this fact is discernible in the picture, and it is only of recent years that reform has taken place. The population of Malton, Norton, and Old Malton in 1837 was about 6,800, Norton having 1,425 only (now 3,842). The town was undrained at that time and divers old pumps were the only source of the water supply. It was 1861 before the town was drained properly. A little before the opening of Queen Victoria's reign, the charges for sending letters were as follows: - Bridlington, 6d; Driffield, 5d; Pickering, 1d; Scarborough, 6d; Whitby, 6d; and York, 5d. I fear I cannot say when our first Post Office in Chancery-lane was opened. I have always supposed that it would be upon the establishment of penny postage in 1840. The railway came in July of 1845, and was financed by the York and North Midland Railway Company. E.E.T.
October 1913 saw the start of a programme of demolition in Castlegate to make way for a new motor garage. Part of the old yard and wharfage were taken by Russells and Wrangham, adding to their already extensive buildings. In their day, these buildings were landing and storage places for Messrs. Hardcastle of the Old Malton Limeworks; Priestman's of the Low-st. tannery; Walker and Dunlop, millers; and Mr. D. Brown, coal merchant. During the Crimean War the stabling at the top of the yard was occupied by Mr. Thomas Nelson, the leading horse dealer in the district and who bought hundreds of horses for the War Office and sent them off to the Crimea.
Yorkshire Gazette, 18 October 1913
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